Sunday, November 11, 2012

¿Quién es la derecha hoy en Argentina?


Estos días han acusado a la Fundación donde trabajo de ser "de ultraderecha". Pienso en "la derecha". Pienso en las frecuentes menciones de desprecio de Gargarella. Pienso en "le hacen el juego a la derecha" que se le suele endilgar desde el gobierno nacional al socialismo. ¿Qué es la derecha hoy en la Argentina?

Creo conveniente distinguir dos definiciones de derecha. Una es una especie de monstruo multiforme, una hidra de mil cabezas, que resume todo lo malo que hay en este mundo: el racismo, la tortura, el asesinato, la discriminación, la soberbia, el desdén, la concentración de poder, el autoritarismo, la autocracia, la esclavitud, el sometimiento del otro, la eliminación del diálogo y del debate, la ambición sin escrúpulos, etc. En la historia del mundo esa derecha ha sido representada por el régimen nazi y personificada en Hitler. En la historia argentina, ha sido representada por la dictadura militar del 76 y personificada en Videla. (Quizás también pudiera ser representada y personificada por Rosas y su régimen, pero dos cuestiones atenúan el veredicto: tiene algo de anacrónico al ser un ejemplo del siglo XIX y todavía no estaban sentadas las bases legales del país). Obsérvese que esta definición de derecha bien puede aplicarse a muchos regímenes supuestamente de izquierda como el soviético, el cubano de Fidel o el chino de Mao.

La otra derecha, la derecha democrática, no tiene, en principio, nada que ver. En primer lugar, la ley y la constitución son su piedra basal, por lo que descarta cualquier delito como fin o metodología. En segundo lugar, su metodología es la de una república democrática: se rige por la división de poderes, y por la desconcentración del poder: éste se reparte entre el ejecutivo nacional, el legislativo, el judicial, los ejecutivos, legislativos y judiciales provinciales, los medios de comunicación, las empresas, las asocaciones, etc. Pero si es ese es el caso, ¿cómo se distingue de la izquierda democrática? Hay bastante debate sobre el tema y la distinción es sutil, lo que lleva a que, en democracias avanzadas, se alternen en el poder sin grandes cambios de funcionamiento. Pero bien podría definirse a la derecha (en el mundo) como socialmente conservadora (por ejemplo, anti-matrimonio gay) y económicamente liberal (por ejemplo, en una crisis dejar que el mercado reordene la situación), en tanto que la izquierda es socialmente liberal (por ejemplo, anticlerical) y económicamente conservadora (por ejemplo, keynesiana, es decir prohija una política de estabilización).

Cada país tiene su idiosincracia y ello parece afectar las izquierdas y derechas de cada uno. Así, la izquierda de Estados Unidos (los demócratas) parecieran estar en algunos aspectos más a la derecha que la derecha de Francia (por ejemplo, en lo que se refiere a la regulación laboral para darle estabilidad al empleo).

Por otro lado, es interesante notar que, al estar interrelacionado lo económico con lo social, bien puede ser que una ideología promueva políticas económicas que eventualmente vayan en contra de su ideología social. Así, por ejemplo, si la derecha promueve la libertad económica, y esta lleva a un cambio tecnológico que le da poder a personas con ideología socialmente liberal, habrán sentado las bases para el liberalismo social. Tal parece ser el caso con el empuje que ha dado la libertad económica a la ciencia en Estados Unidos. Un gran mercado premia fuertemente la innovación, lo que lleva a grandes retornos para científicos e innovadores. Pero estos a su vez tienden a tener ideas socialmente innovadoras. En un mundo donde el cambio tecnológico puede ser rápido no está nada claro que la derecha no promueva, a través de la libertad económica, un cambio social mayor que la izquierda.

¿Cómo caracterizar entonces la situación política en Argentina? Conceptualmente, hay tres grupos políticos: el kirchnerismo, un grupo de centro-izquierda y un grupo de centro-derecha. El primero incluye al gobierno nacional, provinciales e intendentes, y se define principalmente, no por sus ideas, sino porque ejerce el poder. El segundo incluye al socialismo santafesino y sus aliados (GEN, Libres del Sur, etc.), al radicalismo social-demócrata, al ARI, y a grupos de izquierda más o menos democráticos. El tercero incluye al PRO, al peronismo federal, al radicalismo liberal y/o conservador y a partidos provinciales (tales como los demócratas mendocinos o los liberales correntinos).

¿Cuál de estos tres grupos es “más de derecha” de acuerdo a la primera definición? Desde mi punto de vista, la respuesta es el kirchnerismo. Aún no han caído en delitos aberrantes (salvo quizás las más de 15 muertes por represión social), pero ciertamente se han caracterizado por la discriminación (por ejemplo, al enfatizar el color de la piel en varias declaraciones), la soberbia (por ejemplo, ignorar protestas de millones de personas), el desdén (al minimizar los reclamos), la concentración del poder (al avanzar sobre la justicia, y sojuzgar mediante el fisco a gobernadores e intendentes), y sobre todo han eliminado la posibilidad del diálogo y del debate (pues o no concurren a debatir o simplemente a contestar preguntas, o porque directamente discuten las personas y no las ideas). Son todos rasgos de lo que se llama comúnmente la derecha autoritaria, aunque debería llamarse simplemente autoritarismo. ¿Quiénes representan ese autoritarismo, esa “derecha”, dentro del gobierno? Ciertamente, Cristina en su torre de cristal. Pero también Kunkel, Larroque, Abal Medina, Moreno, De Vido, Echegaray, Kicillof, D´Elia, Timerman, el aparato propagandístico, y los nombres no paran de venir a la mente.

Si realmente quieren un país democrático, los argentinos deberán elegir en los próximas décadas entre los dos grupos democráticos, sin rasgos autoritarios. Mientras tanto, esos dos grupos deben reconocerse y cuidarse, eventualmente unirse contra el kirchnerismo para evitar que se lleven puesta la democracia.

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